These discrepancies in climatic dependencies allowed both for a harmonious distribution, i.e., inhabiting in regions not utilised by other. Second, the analyses indicate that the natural recruitment of tree seedlings for tree rehabilitation confronts enormous competition from non-tree species. Sterilization of these soils eliminated their inhibitory effect. 446-458, factors on seed germination and emergence of Chromolaena odorata in, coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. In Indonesia, chromolaena odorata as opposite, can be found in lowland about 500 above the sea. ... Indonesia, Philippines, Western Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands and India. C. odorata from the three provinces of Zamboanga Peninsula is very similar with the AWA and the Central and South American biotypes. To understand the use of Chromolaena odorata in different agricultural systems and ecosystems, findings of several scientific studies conducted in different areas have been assessed in this review paper. We are also g. to the copyediting assistance of Dr. MTRD Sanchez-Metillo. Environmental Research, vol. The nomenclature of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. Cleome serrulata: Rocky Mountain bee plant. Only fractions 4 and 5 inhibited seed germination in L. esculentum at 25% concentration. South African Journal of Science, vol. It is one of the world's most successful invasive plants, occurring all over the world, Elucidate coastal foodwebs for conservation and management, The Philippine blubber jellyfish Catostylus sp. The positive effect of Chromolaena root leachates on Fusarium spores was attenuated by activated carbon, suggesting a biochemical basis for how the invader stimulated the pathogen. Thirty six, (Table 1). We found that rhizosphere soils of Chromolaena odorata , one of the world's most destructive tropical invasive weeds, accumulate high concentrations of the generalist soil borne fungi, Fusarium (tentatively identified as F. semitectum), thus creating a negative feedback for native plant species. Biological control of Chromolaena odorata: Preliminary studies on the use of the gall forming fly, Cecidochares connexa in the Philippines, Exotic invasive plant accumulates native soil pathogens which inhibit native plants, Rehabilitation of forest-savannas in Ghana: The impacts of land use, shade, and invasive species on tree recruitment, Spider responses to alien plant invasion: The effect of short- and long-term Chromolaena odorata invasion and management, Dealing with weedy problems in agriculture: The role of three agricultural land use management practices in the forest-savanna ecological zone of Ghana. Abstract The gall fly, Cecidochares connexa has been imported to the Philippines from Indonesia for biological control of Chromolaena odorata.The fly oviposits into the tender shoots of the host plant. The results of the study on three of these ecosystems get a number of Highly invasive plant, soil-borne fungi that act as pathogens on native plants [, The robustness of the species was demonstrated by its rapid, regrowth at the onset of rainy season following a moderate El, found to be wilting in several areas of the Zamboanga, rated low compared to those reported in Ghana (15 - 173 x, has a corresponding cost to farm owners who regularly, remove the weed from their farms. Available Cu ranged from 1.0 to 2.55 mg/kg in Kano State and from 0.49 to 2.91 mg/kg in Bauchi State. The information was, In this special issue, ecophysiology of major tropical tree crops, considered here on a broader sense and including species such as banana, cashew, cassava, citrus, cocoa, coconut, coffee, mango, papaya, rubber, and tea, are examined. Names of Chromolaena Odorata in various languages of the world are also given. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, an invasive species of the Asteraceae Family, is a weedy shrub native to the warm Central and South America but has successfully invaded other regions of the world including the Philippine islands. Herbaceous aliens were not surveyed. The 0.5% ethanol crude extract also reduced the mitotic index in Allium cepa (onion) root tips. vegetation in the area of CAPS. 1, pp. The progressive invasion of C. odorata with increasing invasion duration brings with it changes in native spider abundance, assemblage patterns, diversity and estimated species richness. In Bauchi State, the highest population of S. gesnerioides occurred in Gar at Ganjiwa LGA. Mean soil pH in, ODES FOR EACH SPECIES ARE USED IN THE MULTIVARIATE CANONICAL CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS, AND SOIL TYPE AT THREE SAMPLING SITES IN THE, > 0.25) were generated by CCA. besides the plants included in the Red List of Endangered IUCN, 2012. The gross morphology of one of the world’s worst invasive plant species, Chromolaena odorata, now widespread in three provinces of the Zamboanga Peninsula, was examined and compared to the characteristics of Asian/West African (AWA), Southern African (SA), and … Conservation attention should focus on protecting remaining forests and planting native species as part of a forest restoration strategy to enhance faster forest recovery and re-connecting remnant forest patches. Biocontrol of Chromolaena odorata in Papua New Guinea Michael Dayl and Ingu Bofeng2 1 Alan Fletcher Research Station PO Box 36, Sherwood, Qld 4075, Australia, E-mail: ... Cecidochares connexa from the Philippines in 2001 and the leaf mining fly Calycomyza eupatorivora from South Africa in … The Striga gesnerioides population was negatively related to cowpea grain yield. Soil pH, aspect and number of non-native plants show positive association while soil moisture, leaf litter thickness, elevation, species richness, species evenness, plot species diversity index, and the number of native plants signify negative association. However, its detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. Twelve farmers’ fields were sampled from each community along a transect. Cecidochares connexa was present at 82 sites in eight localities, limited to around Visayas and Mindanao. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum leaves. In: Po-Yung Lai et al. mangrove species and four species nails and orchids. Distribution maps given for the eight species which are currently most important in the Complex. C. odorata from the three provinces of Zamboanga Peninsula is very similar with the AWA and the Central and South American biotypes. Drawing on these findings and the detailed narratives of farmers, the article submits that the challenge for the natural recruitment of trees in the study region is for farmers to adopt land management practices that significantly increase the numbers of tree species while reducing the competition from non-tree species, such as C. odorata. Coconut and mango were found in the highest number of homestead (79%) in the study area. A. W. Macdonald, “Alien trees, shrubs and creepers invading, A. McWilliam, “A plague on your house? Irrespective of type of cropped field, soil reaction in the communities was strongly acid (5.0–5.5), moderately acid (5.6–6.0), slightly acid (6.1–6.5), neutral (6.6–7.5), or alkaline (7.4–8.0). ... Eupatorium odoratum, also known as Chromolaena odorata (L.), is a wildly growing free standing shrub from the family of Asteraceae. Insights into the opportunities and the challenges of recruiting trees for the rehabilitation of these forests are much needed. 3. Ecology, vol. Mediterranean, semi-arid and temperate climates are now predicted to be unsuitable. In sorghum fields, the highest population of Striga was recorded in Lame at Toro LGA in Bauchi State. But, none of them have provided any significant success. Restauración de la cobertura vegetal en áreas previamente afectadas por la minería aluvial de oro en el Nordeste de Antioquia, Colombia. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts were assessed through diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power (RP). The study covered 300 homesteads from five unions. Natal,” Bothalia, vol. Chromolaena es un género de plantas fanerógamas perteneciente a la familia de las asteráceas.Comprende 195 especies descritas y solo 137 aceptadas. The ecology of the highly invasive plant species C. odorata is poorly studied in the Philippines in spite of the fact that it is hard to eradicate, a nuisance in plantations, and known to harm farm animals and decimate forage and native plant species. An analysis of the habitats being invaded by these alien plants is presented and it is concluded that riverine and forest-edge habitats are those most seriously threatened by alien plant infestations. The Asian tree, Melia azedarach, is considered the second most important alien species invading the area. The ethanol extract of E. odoratum had the highest FRAP while the aqueous extract of A. boonei showed the highest RP ability when compared with the other extracts. cacao and coffee) to preclude invasion of, Abundance and successful invasion is most likely, influenced by the biology of the species (e.g., the allelopathic, rather than by local edaphic conditions. In sorghum fields, the S. hermonthica population had a negative relationship with organic C, total N, latitude, available Fe, and exchangeable Ca and was positively related to available P and exchangeable Mg in Kano State. The results revealed that the DPPH radical scavenging ability of aqueous extract of E. odoratum (with IC50 = 0.07± 0.003mg/ml) compares favourably with that of the standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/ml). In Bauchi, 84% of maize fields and 75% of sorghum fields were dominated by coarse textured soil. The suppression of seedlings in dense infestations requires chemical control until grass cover is sufficient to effect uniform burning. Dactyloctenium radulans: button grass, but only when growing in high-nitrogen soil, such as in stockyards. Interestingly, there were significantly fewer numbers of exotic species in bigger remnant forest sites and in older exotic tree species-based reforested sites, while larger numbers of native species occurred in older than in younger exotic tree species-based reforested sites.   Son nativos de las Américas, desde el sur de Estados Unidos a América del Sur (sobre todo Brasil).Una especie, Chromolaena odorata, se ha introducido en muchas partes del mundo donde se considera una mala hierba. Average number of sorghum plants/m2 attacked by Striga ranged from 0.98 to 5.4 plants/m2 in Kano State and from 1.22 to 4.23 sorghum plants/m2 in Bauchi State. 1. It reduces vegetation heterogeneity in grasslands, savannas and forests. The medusae were closely similar to C. mosaicus and C. townsendi in many aspects except that the surface of the central portion of their exumbrella was smooth, and not coarsely granulated. Hagonoy, Chromolaena odorata, DEVIL WEED, Fei ji cao - Herbal Medicine - An illustrated compilation of Philippine medicinal plants by Dr Godofredo Umali Stuart with botanical information, chemical properties, folkloric uses and research studies. 3&4, pp. Chromolaena, Armstrong's weed, baby tea, bitter bush, butterfly weed, Christmas bush, chromolaena, devil weed, eupatorium, Jack in the bush, Jack-in-the-bush, kingweed, paraffinbush, paraffinweed, Siam weed, turpentine weed, triffid weed. climate,” Weed Research, vol. Institute of Technology (MSUIIT), Iligan City, Philipines in 2006. Also known as Siam weed, it forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other plant species. Siamweed. Twenty alien tree, shrub and creeper species currently invading indigenous vegetation within the Complex are listed. 45, no. m, largest colonies found in Southern sites (Fig. Chromolaena odorata is one of the most important invader species in the savanna biome in South Africa. He completed his Bachelor of Science, (zoology), Magna Cum Laude, at the Mindanao State, University Marawi City in 1988. Chromolaena odorata is a fast-growing perennial shrub, native to South America and Central America. Fire- induced mortality of the weed depends on grass fuel loads. Among them 30.9% fruits, 29.09% timber, 34.54% vegetables and 5.45% were spices species. 3. Biological control has a major role in rehabilitating grassland to secondary forest or in forest ecosystems that have become invaded. contributes 28 per cent of agricultural GDP. Total phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content of the extracts were estimated to determine the levels of phenolics in the extracts. The present study reveals harmony in their distributions and suggests distinct conservation protocols for each of them to control their invasion risks. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were medium (Ca: 2–5; Mg: 0.3–1.0 cmol/kg) to high (Ca: > 5 cmol/kg; Mg: > 1.0 cmol/kg) in Kano State. It has been utilized in the traditional medicinal systems for its … In conclusion, farmers’ perception on soil quality was inconsistent with the result of laboratory soil analysis, which revealed the poor fertility status of soils in the communities studied. Exclusively distributed by CE-Logic | Terms and Conditions, IAMURE International Journal of Terrestial Ecology. Chromolaena odorata, or Christmas bush and Siam weed, has been spotted inclusively in the presence of resurrection fern on the top of the roof. Chromolaena, Cairns, Australia, 2003, pp. Galls start to appear within 12-15 days after oviposition. There are a substantial number of programmes that aim to control alien invasive plants but very little is known about the way in which biodiversity recovers after alien plant removal. CanoDraw for windows user guide. Modelling, vol. Findings showed that wellawel (Chromolaena odorata) leaf extract contains alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, luecoanthocyanins, flavonoids and tannins. The morphological exa, The focus of the study is to determine the management and sustainability of mangrove resources specifically on resource utilization, conservation and the government implementation of the involvemen, Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy as it contributes about 15% to the total GDP and provides employment to over 60 per cent of the population. (eds). Training Need Assessment of Officers Working in Agricultural Marketing in India, Plant Biodiversity in the Homesteads of Saline Area of Southeastern Bangladesh, Plant-Biodiversity at Ajmerigang Haor Homesteads of Bangladesh, Ecophysiology of tropical tree crops: An introduction. Depending on chromolaena density, soil type and aspect, grasslands can be rehabilitated and managed in multiple states, namely as grassland, savanna or forest communities. In the coastal forest ecosystems found a herbaceous plant that is Chromolaena odorata Soils collected beneath Chromolaena in the Western Ghats of India inhibited naturalized/native species and contained over 25 times more spores of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium semitectum than soils collected at the same locations beneath neighbouring native species that were at least 20 m from any Chromolaena plant. The diversity patterns of three major plant groups were assessed: (1) trees (trees and palms), (2) herbs (grasses, shrubs, forbs, ferns), and (3) epiphytes (climbers and epiphytes), by determining the changes in compositional and species richness patterns in two forest conditions, i.e., remnant forests and exotic tree species-based reforested areas, in active forest over limestone quarries in the Luzon and Mindanao biogeographic sub-regions of the Philippines. form monsoonal blooms in many parts of the Philippine archipelago, however the taxonomy of the jellyfish needs to be clarified. d’Ivoire,” Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. This study, therefore, reveals that aqueous extract of A. boonei and ethanol extract of E. odoratum leaf are more effective free radical scavengers and antioxidants relative to the other extract forms. 4. different species of vegetation. of the. The Striga gesnerioides population in Bauchi State was higher than that recorded in Kano State. Chromolaena odorata in different ecosystems: Weed or fallow plant? It has been reported to be the most problematic invasive species within protected rainforests in Africa. It has been introduced into the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed. The distribution of C. odorata in South Africa extends further south than predicted by the model based on Asian and American distribution records. Mulching slashed vegetation, as a land preparation practice, was also consistently better at reducing weed densities than burning the slashed vegetation. Chromolaena density affects grassland species composition, with dense stands in grassland being monospecific. of the Second International, Workshop on Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena. 2. However, its potential distribution is much wider than at present. We found that rhizosphere soils of Chromolaena odorata, one of the world's most destructive tropical invasive weeds, accumulate high concentrations of the generalist soil borne fungi, Fusarium (tentatively identified as F. semitectum), thus creating a negative feedback for native plant species. Available P which ranged from 0.69 to 40.8 mg/kg in Kano State and 1.79 to 59.0 mg/kg in Bauchi State fell within the major fertility classes of low (< 10 mg/kg), medium (10–20 mg/kg), and high (> 20 mg/kg). mination revealed that the Catostylus medusae in Southern Philippines (Panguil Bay) do not match with the descriptions of any reported valid species of Catostylus. No significant, relationship between soil parameters and vegetation, tends to be of maximal abundance in the presence of, Zamboanga Peninsula seems to be favored by an acidic soil, and the range of soil parameters measured in this study. Chromolaena odorata has long been referred to as Eupatorium odoratum. The prevalence of T. procumbens in central regions of India could demonstrate its greater dependencies on precipitation seasonality and radiation than that on temperature. It was transferred to the genus Chromolaena by King and Robinson (1970), and although this conception of the tribe Eupatorieae has met some disagreement among botanists, the new binomial of Chromolaenaodorata (L.) … Sparse to moderate infestations with more than 30% grass cover are killed by fire. Component of woody plant succession in subtropical grasslands onion ) root tips of these forests much. Suppression of seedlings in dense infestations requires chemical control until grass cover are killed during annual veld-burning in sparse moderate... The pristine systems are important stores of biodiversity pristine systems are important for policy-forming and policy-makers... The gallform than 30 % grass cover is sufficient to effect uniform burning related to grain... 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Technique was used to select communities and LGAs sixty-four cowpea fields had coarse textured soil & mangement system low!